The crown jewel of Central Europe, Prague (locally known as Praha) is an incredible melange of extraordinary sights, historic architecture, vibrant nightlife, and delectable cuisine. Located at the crossroads of the continent, this city blends in influences from both Western and Eastern Europe. With so many things to do, see, and experience, Prague deserves a place in every traveller’s itinerary.
Situated on the banks of the Vltava River, Prague has been the seat of Bohemian kings since the 9th century. It was also part of the erstwhile Habsburg Empire and was a provincial capital of Czechoslovakia. Finally, in 1993, when the new Czech Republic was formed as an independent national, Prague became its capital.
Its historic centre is a designated UNESCO world heritage site, and the Prague Castle has proudly looked over the city for over a thousand years. Filled with medieval bridges, countless church spires, castles, and towers, Prague is a city that has stood the test of time and was virtually left undamaged during World War II. With this article, I have made an attempt to summarise all that this grand city of yore has to offer for visitors including where to eat, drink, and stay.
When to visit?
Like the rest of Europe, Prague has its peak season in the summer months from June to August. This is also the time when Prague sees the highest influx of tourists, with warm weather and plenty to sunshine being a sure shot crowd puller. Ironically, July is also the month when it rains the most in Prague.
Spring and Autumn are shoulder seasons and can be a great time to visit the city sans the crowd and without the marked-up prices. May especially is a great time to visit, given the fact that it is when the flora beginning to bloom after months of hibernation. Winters in the city are usually cold and can snow at times, which gives the historic centre a magical charm. Check out Prague on Holiday-Weather.com for more weather-related information.
Arriving in Prague
Václav Havel Airport is the primary airport serving the Prague area. It connects to most major destinations across Europe and the rest of the world. Note that flights to many destinations outside Europe are seasonal. It connects to cities in China, South Korea, and UAE in Asia, and a couple of North American and North African cities. The Airport has 3 terminals – Terminal 2 caters to all flights within the Schengen Area, Terminal 1 caters to flights outside the Schengen Area, and Terminal 3 is for private jets. Czech Airlines is the flag carrier of the Czech Republic and hence flies the most flights to the capital.
Getting into the city from the airport
A number of buses connect the airport to metro stations which further connect to destinations across the city. The bus lines servicing the airport are 119 (connects to metro line A), 100 (connects to metro line B), 190 (connects to both metro line A and B), and 910 Night Bus (operates from Midnight to 4 AM, does not connect to any metro line). To reach the historic centre where many of the attractions are located, bus line 119 is the most preferred. It connects to Veleslavín train station of metro line A and takes around 15 minutes to reach there.
Tickets can be bought from the Visitor Centre, Prague Public Transit company (DPP) Kiosks in the Arrival Hall, or from ticket vending machines both in the arrival halls and near the bus stop. Both Terminal 1 and 2 are serviced by the bus routes. A detailed guide to Prague’s public transport and fares is available in a later section.
Airport Express (AE) Bus
The Airport Express Bus connects the Terminal 1 of Václav Havel Airport with Hlavní Nádraží, Prague’s main railway station with no intermediate stops. Services run every half an hour from 5:30 AM to 9 PM from the airport to the railway station. They run from 6:30 AM to 10 PM in the opposite direction. Tickets can be bought online for 44 CZK (~ 1.98 USD, 149.6 INR) or for 60 CZK (~ 2.7 USD, 204 INR) if you directly pay the driver once aboard.
Prague Airport has authorised Fix Taxi and Taxi Praha as official taxi partners for airport pickups. Both terminals have sales counters in their arrival halls and designated pickup points. Prices are fixed by the Prague City Municipal Office and both companies offer a discount for return trips. Several other companies like Kiwitaxi.com, Prague Airport Shuttle, 24-ATP, T&A Transfers offer private transfers requiring you to pre-book the service. You would have your driver holding a placard with your name on it waiting for you. Saves you the hassle of looking out for options on arrival.
Prague Airport has numerous car rental companies offering their services from the airport. Makes sense for visitors who would like to explore the Czech Republic beyond Prague and at their own convenience. Some reputed brands include Hertz, Enterprise, Avis, Europcar, and Sixt. Make sure to check with the rental company if a valid International Drivers Permit is required.
There are several companies offering shared shuttle bus service from the airport to either the centre of the old town or directly to your choice of stay. Prague Airport Transfer is one such company which offers shuttle bus services. Prices to the city centre of Prague are 140 CZK (~ 6.3 USD, 476 INR) per person and to your hotel in Prague are 290 CZK (~ 13.05 USD, 986 INR) per person.
Within the Czech Republic
Prague is connected by several train services with major destinations across Europe. Within the Czech Republic, Czech Railways (České dráhy), RegioJet, and Leo Express connect Prague to all major cities including Ostrava & Brno. Czech Railways is the oldest of three operators and serves the highest number of destinations in the Czech Republic. Tickets need not necessarily be pre-booked and can be bought at the station. However, in case you wish to reserve a seat of your choice, you can make an advance reservation online on the Czech Railways website. SuperCity and RailJet are two highspeed trains operated by Czech Railways. RegioJet and Leo Express are new entrants and connect far fewer destinations. However, since these operators require pre-booking, you will be guaranteed a seat. Check their individual websites linked above for route information, timetables, fares, and online booking.
Connections from other European cities
From Berlin, there are trains every 2 hours with a journey time of around 4 hours 20 minutes. This is one of the most scenic routes to reach Prague, passing through the Erzgebirge mountains and the surrounding Alpine valleys. You can check the timetables and book tickets on the German Railways website or on the Czech Railways website. Trains are jointly operated by German, Hungarian, and Czech Railways. Prices start at 19.90 EUR (~ 23.38 USD, 1751 INR) for 2nd class tickets.
Munich connects to Prague via seven daily Regional Express trains with a journey time of around 5 hours 30 minutes. You can check the timetables and book tickets on the Cezch Railways website. Trains are jointly operated by Czech Railways and Länderbahn, a regional train service for the Bavarian region. Advance ticket prices for 2nd class tickets start at 15 EUR (~ 17.63 USD, 1320 INR).
From Vienna, the highspeed Railjet trains, operated by Czech Railways, serve the Prague route with trains every 2 hours with a travel time of around 4 hours. There are RegioJet services as well, connecting Vienna to Prague with four daily services. Railjet tickets can be booked on the Cezch Railways website. Tickets can also be booked on the Austrian Railways website. Prices for 2nd class tickets start at 14 EUR (~ 15.28 USD, 1232 INR) for advance purchases. Tickets for Regiojet, which is a private Czech operator, can be booked on their own website. Prices for Low-Cost category start at 15 EUR (~ 17.63 USD, 1320 INR).
Budapest connects to Prague via Bratislava with EuroCity services every 2 hours and a 7-hour long journey bridging three countries. These trains are jointly operated by the Czech Railways, Slovakian Railways, and Hungarian Railways. There’s also the recently started RegioJet service with 2 trains a day connecting Budapest and Prague. Ticket prices on the EuroCity services start at 19 EUR (~ 22.33 USD, 1672 INR) for the 2nd class. Tickets can be booked on the Cezch Railways website or on the Hungarian Railways website. Tickets for Regiojet can be booked on their own website. Prices for Low-Cost category start at 16 EUR (~ 18.80 USD, 1408 INR).
Additionally, there are trains to Prague from Krakow, Warsaw and Salzburg, and several connecting trains to major cities across Europe. There are several night trains as well connecting Prague to the cities of Zurich, Krakow, Minsk, Moscow and Saint Petersburg. All trains from major cities in and outside the Czech Republic arrive at Prague’s main station – Hlavní Nádraží.
For detailed timetables, information, reviews, and photographs of train travel in the Czech Republic and beyond, refer to Seat61.com.
There are several bus stations in Prague, the most important being Florenc located east of the city centre. Bus to major European destinations depart from and arrive at this station. Some major bus operators connecting Prague are Regiojet, Eurolines, Ecolines, Leo Express, and Flixbus. Tickets should preferably be booked online in advance, especially if you would prefer a seat of your choice. Prices are usually cheaper than train travel via the same route. Check individual timetables, fares, and booking options on the websites of the operators linked above.
Green Shuttle offers door-to-door shuttle bus service from Český Krumlov to Prague with pickup and dropoff included. There are four departures a day at 8:30 AM, 11:30 AM, 2:30 PM, and 5:30 PM. Prices are 1150 CZK (~ 51.75 USD, 3910 INR) per person for a shared ride from Cesky Krumlov to Prague. Tickets can be booked online on the website linked above.
The official currency of the Czech Republic is the Czech Koruna abbreviated as Kč with CZK often used to represent the currency (ISO code). Although the Czech Republic is part of the European Union, Euros are not widely accepted here and it makes sense to exchange Euros or any other foreign currency for Czech Koruna at either the point of entry or one of the exchange shops in town. Current exchange rates for 1 Koruna is roughly 0.045 USD or 0.038 EUR or 3.36 INR.
While there are several currency exchange shops at the airport, rates are always higher in comparison to the shops in the city. There are also tons of ATMs and cards are accepted everywhere in the city, should you not wish to use cash. One of the best places to exchange currency in the old town is a shop named Exchange. Their rates are highly competitive and you can check them out on their website. They also offer VIP rates for customers willing to exchange a large sum of money. Other exchange shops in the old town offering competitive exchange rates include Exchange 8 and AuraAktiv.
Getting around in Prague
The Old Town of Prague is compact and ideal for walking in the narrow cobblestoned streets. However, it is not particularly accessible friendly and people with mobility issues will have a challenge navigating the narrow alleyways on their own. There are a couple of free walking tours covering the old town of Prague which can be a great way of exploring the city. More on that in the later sections. Or meander aimlessly through the historic streets on your own and discover hidden gems. Its all part of the fun.
Prague has a highly efficient public transport network with a common ticketing system and is integrated into the Prague integrated transport (PID) managed by the Prague Public transport Co. It includes 3 Metro (Subway) lines, the Petřín Funicular, 6 ferry lines crossing the Vltava River, and multiple routes for trams, buses, and suburban trains. While most lines operator only during the day until late evening, a few trams and bus lines operator from midnight to early morning. Schedules, maps, and fare information can all be found on the official website. You can plan your entire trip using the scheduling section of the website. They also have a dedicated section for tourist information linked here.
Tickets for Public transport in Prague are priced according to the length of time they are valid for and a ticket holder can make an unlimited number of trips and transfers within the entire network as long as the ticket is valid. A 30-minute long ticket is priced at 24 CZK (~ 1.08 USD, 81 INR), the 90-minute ticket at 32 CZK (~ 1.44 USD, 109 INR), the 24-hours ticket at 110 CZK (~ 4.95 USD, 374 INR), and a 3 day (72 hours) ticket is priced at 310 CZK (~ 13.95 USD, 1054 INR) for an adult. Discounts available for children, students, and senior citizens.
Both the PID and Prague Public transport websites linked above have detailed fare related information. The 24 hours and 72 hours ticket only make sense if you make a minimum number of trips each day. Plan your route ahead and see what works best for you.
|90 min.||32 CZK||16 CZK||16 CZK|
|30 min.||24 CZK||12 CZK||12 CZK|
|24 hrs.||110 CZK||55 CZK||55 CZK|
|72 hrs.||310 CZK||—||—|
Tickets can be bought at a variety of places including the PID Lítačka mobile app (both apple and android versions available), ticket machines (some new ones accept card, while the older ones only accept cash), convenience stores, ticketing offices at metro and railway stations, tram drivers ( contactless cards), and bus drivers (cash, at a higher fare). All tickets need to be validated before use in one of the yellow validation boxes either in the train stations or inside buses and trams. Regular ticket checking ensures that travelling without a ticket or a ticket not validated will incur a fine.
While taxi fares in Prague are regulated by the City Council, taxis in the city centre can often overcharge and use dubious means to cheat passengers. Especially in locations like the airport, railway station, and the old town, taxi drivers are known to overcharge tourists or anyone who appears foreign. As such, it is advised that you pre-book your journey with a reputed taxi company so that you don’t end up being cheated on. A few taxi operators offering safe and reliable service in Prague are Green Prague, AAA Radiotaxi, and Taxi Praha 14007. Many of these operators now also have their own apps and have predefined rate cards which they stick to. Finally, there’s Uber in Prague as well as its local equivalent Liftago.
Things to see
Prague is truly a sightseers delight. With so many things to see and do on both sides of the river Vltava, it can be overwhelming for first-timers. The below list tries to summarise the very best of all the attractions that Prague has to offer and includes personal recommendations.
One of Europe’s most beautiful city squares, the Staromestske Namesti located in the heart of the Old Town is home to a number of Prague’s attractions. This square has been in existence since the 12th century and has been witness to many of Prague’s historical events. It is home to the Old Town Hall, the Church of Our Lady before Týn, Baroque Church of St Nicholas, the Rococo Kinský Palace, and the Monument of Jan Hus at the very centre. Jan Hus was a religious reformer who was burned at the stake in the city of Konstanz for his beliefs.
The square also plays host to Prague’s famous Christmas Market. This market in the Old Town Square is one of the biggest in Europe and was ranked by CNN in 2016 as one of the top 10 Christmas Markets in the world. It is part of the UNESCO designated World Heritage site for the Historic Centre of Prague.
Built in the 14th century as a replacement for the earlier Judith Bridge, Charles Bridge is Prague’s oldest bridge connecting the Old Town with the Lesser Town over the Vltava River. This pedestrian bridge is now a popular attraction and is filled with musicians, souvenir sellers, and tourists during the summer months. The bridge is also flanked by 30 statues of saints added over the last 4 centuries, the most famous being the statue of St John of Nepomuk. Must see when in Prague.
- Location: Karlův Most, Prague 11000 Czech Republic
- Hours: Always open
- Ticket: Free for everyone, pedestrian-only
With over 700 rooms, Prague Castle is the largest castle in Europe and possibly the world by area. With so much to see inside this vast palace complex, it can consume the better half of your day. Part of the UNESCO World Heritage site of Prague, the castle complex consists of the Old Royal Palace, St. Vitus Cathedral, St. George’s Basilica, and the Golden Lane. Prague Castle is a must for any Prague itinerary. Below is a brief of the highlights worth seeing.
Old Royal Palace
This was the site of the original palace built in the 9th century. The palace in its current form was built towards the end of the 15th century in Gothic style with Renaissance elements. Worth seeing in the Old Palace are the Vladislav Hall (part of circuit A and B tickets) which was used for coronations and royal banquets, the Theresian Wing (open for exhibitions of art), and the All Saints’ Church (open to public only at times of religious ceremonies).
St. Vitus Cathedral
St. Vitus Cathedral is the largest and most important church not only in Prague but also in the whole of the Czech Republic. This is where former kings and queens were coronated, many of whom are buried here as well. The church also houses the Czech Crown Jewels. While construction of the church started way back in the 14th century, it was completed in its current form only in the early 20th century, with renovations happening over the years after that. The church is built in a neo-gothic style with brilliantly decorated stained glass windows. The royal crypt lies beneath the cathedral and houses the crown jewels. St. Vitus Cathedral is part of circuit A and B tickets. However, the treasures of St. Vitus is a separate exhibition with its own ticket.
St. George’s Basilica
St. George’s Basilica started as the second church of Prague Castle. While the origins of the church go back to the 9th century, the present Romanesque structure was built during the 12th century. Multiple additions were carried out later over the following centuries. It is part of circuit A and B tickets.
The Golden Lane served as modest dwellings for the defenders of the castle, servants, and other ordinary folks working in and around the castle. This tiny village within the Castle complex was occupied until World War II. The famous Czech writer Franz Kafka lived in house no. 22 from 1916 to 1917. It has now become a site of pilgrimage for Kafka fans. In the post-war era, the entire lane was taken up for preservation and the only people you can see here today are throngs of tourists crowding the tiny lane. It too is part of circuit A and B tickets.
Great South Tower of the Cathedral
The Great South Tower of the Cathedral is nearly 100 metres tall and require climbing over 280 flights of stairs to reach the top. However, the view from the top is worth the climb. Not only do you get to see the city but also witness the church bells up close. The tower was completed in the 14th century and the viewing gallery was added in the 16th century. It houses the biggest bell in the country called the Zikmund which weights 15 tons and dates back to the 16th century.
- Summers (April 1 till October 31): Castle complex – 6 AM to 10 PM, Historic buildings – 10 AM to 6 PM, *St. Vitus Cathedral on Sundays is open from Noon to 6 PM
- Winters (November 1 till March 31): Castle complex – 6 AM to 10 PM, Historic buildings – 9 AM to 4 PM, *St. Vitus Cathedral on Sundays is open from Noon to 4 PM
*Exhibitions might have different opening and closing hours. Please check the Palace Website for the latest timings.
Prague Castle offers various kinds of tickets – some which club multiple attraction together and are called circuit tickets. Others are solely for a single attraction or exhibition.
- The most popular ticket is the Prague Castle – Circuit A. It includes entrances for the Old Royal Palace, St. George‘s Basilica, Golden Lane, St. Vitus Cathedral, Exhibition – The Story of Prague Castle, and the Rosenberg Palace. It is priced at 350 CZK (~ 15.75 USD, 1190 INR) for adults.
- Prague Castle – Circuit B includes entrances for the Old Royal Palace, St. George‘s Basilica, Golden Lane, and the St. Vitus Cathedral. It is priced at 250 CZK (~ 11.25 USD, 850 INR) per adult and is the one I recommend.
- Prague Castle – Circuit C includes entrances for the Exhibition The Treasure of St. Vitus and Prague Castle Picture Gallery and is priced at 350 CZK (~ 15.75 USD, 1190 INR) per adult.
- Entry to the Great South Tower of the Cathedral costs 200 CZK (~ 9 USD, 680 INR) per adult.
- Discounted tickets available for children, senior citizens, and other eligible visitors.
- There are multiple other exhibition specific tickets. Check the Official Website for more details.
- All tickets are valid for 2 days. However, each building can be entered only once with a single ticket.
Audioguides, available in multiple languages are priced at 350 CZK (~ 15.75 USD, 1190 INR) for 3 hours and 450 CZK (~ 20.25 USD, 1530 INR) for the entire day. Photographing the interiors cost 50 CZK (~ 2.25 USD, 170 INR) per person.
Tours with a licensed tour guide are available at the palace. Tours are available in multiple languages and usually run for an hour. They are priced at 150 CZK (~ 6.75 USD, 510 INR) per person and require a minimum of 4 guests or 600 CZK (~ 27 USD, 2040 INR) in payment.
The Lesser Town, also known as Malá Strana, straddles the western banks of the Vltava river near the foothills of the Prague Castle. This historic district is home to many Baroque palaces, churches, ancient burgher houses, and narrow alleyways. Prague’s most famous Baroque church, St Nicholas Church, is also located here. Centred around the Malostranské náměstí square, the Lesser Town offers a much more relaxed vibe, unlike the more touristy Old town. It also offers great dining options with several Czech pubs and riverside restaurants. What started as a market settlement in the 8th century, the Lesser town offers a charming and quieter experience within Prague and is just a 10-minute walk from the heart of the Old town across the Charles Bridge.
St Nicholas Church
Located in the Lesser Town, St. Nicholas Church is a magnificent example of high baroque architecture from the height of the Baroque period in Prague in the 18th century. Mozart is known to have himself played the organ at this church. The church was built in the late 18th century on the site of an earlier Gothic parish church. The church is also known for the concerts that it holds around the year. The concerts are usually held once a week and are 1 hour long. Check the website below for the latest schedule.
- Location: Malostranske Namesti, Prague 118 00 Czech Republic
- Hours: Daily 9 AM to 5 PM, December and January – 9 AM to 4 PM, July and August – 9 AM to 6 PM, *Timings during concert day may vary, please check the website linked below for more information.
- Ticket: Adult – 100 CZK (~ 4.5 USD, 340 INR), senior citizens (65+ years) and youth (10 – 26 years) – 60 CZK (~ 2.7 USD, 204 INR), free for children under 10. Concerts – 490 CZK (~ 22.05 USD, 1666 INR) for an adult, senior citizens (65+ years) and youth (10 – 26 years) -300 CZK (~ 13.5 USD, 1020 INR) , free for children under 10
One of Europe’s largest privately-owned art collection, Lobkowicz Palace is home to paintings by world-famous artists like Brueghel, Canaletto, and Velazquez. It also houses a notable collection of arms and armour, fine porcelain, ceramics, and hand-annotated manuscripts from the likes of Beethoven, Haydn and Mozart. The palace also has its own shop and a cafe overlooking the city of Prague.
Also worth attending is the Midday Classic Concert held daily from 1 PM to 2 PM in the 17th-century baroque Concert Hall. The program includes a 1-hour performance of works by Bach, Vivaldi, Mozart, Beethoven, and Smetana, among others.
- Location: Jirska, 3 Prague Castle, Prague 119 00 Czech Republic
- Hours: Daily from 10 AM to 6 PM
- Ticket: 190 CZK (~ 8.55 USD, 646 INR), includes a multi-lingual audio guide of 1 hour in duration, Midday Classic Concert – 490 CZK (~ 22.05 USD, 1666 INR). A combined ticket for the palace museum and the concert is available for 690 CZK (~ 31.05 USD, 2346 INR).
Old Town Hall
Located in the south-eastern corner of Staromestske Namesti, the historic Old Town Hall in Prague has been the seat of administration since the 14th century. The Old Town Hall consist of 5 buildings with the one in the corner housing a giant astronomical clock and a gothic oriel window. A trip up the tower of Town Hall to the viewing gallery offers wonderful views over the Old town square. The astronomical clock, known as the Orloj, with its 12 Apostles has a show put up at the turn of every hour from 9 AM to 11 PM. Crowds line up the street front to witness this event and it can get quite packed during high seasons.
The other highlights of the Old Town Hall include the Municipal Hall, the Old Council Hall, the Antechamber to the Assembly Hall, the Brožík Assembly Hall, the George Hall, the underground areas, and the Old Town Hall Chapel. These can be visited independently with a ticket or as part of a scheduled tour. Must see when in Prague. Also, recommend climbing up the stairs if you are able enough to the viewing area for the wonderful vistas over the Old Town square.
- Location: Staroměstské Náměstí 1/3, Prague 110 00 Czech Republic
- Hours: Historical Interiors – Tuesdays to Sundays – 9 AM to 7 PM, Mondays – 11 AM to 7 PM, Tower – Tuesdays to Sundays – 9 AM to 10 PM, Mondays – 11 AM to 10 PM
- Website / Mobile Tickets
- Ticket: 250 CZK (~ 11.25 USD, 850 INR) for adults, reduced tickets and family tickets available. You can now purchase a mobile ticket from the link provided above and avail a discounted price of 210 CZK (~ 9.45 USD, 714 INR) and also avoid the long queues at the ticket office this popular attraction sees. Multi-day passes also available. Check the official website for more information.
- Tours: Guided tours in English take place every day at 10 AM, Noon, 2 PM, and 4 PM. On Mondays, the 10 AM tour is replaced with a 5 PM tour. Price included in the ticket.
This is a large urban park towards the north of the city offering splendid views of Prague from the hilltop viewpoints, especially from the Hanavsky Pavilion – a cast-iron building with a restaurant. The park is ideal for hiking, picnics, skateboarding, or simply getting away from hustle and bustle of the city. Recommended if you can afford the time. Free to access and always open.
Jewish Museum in Prague
The Jewish Museum is a collection of Jewish sites in Prague including synagogues, burial sites, ceremonial halls, and galleries depicting Jewish art and culture. All the sites are located in the Jewish Quarters of Old Town. These include –
- The 16th century Maisel Synagogue
- The Pinkas Synagogue which is the 2nd oldest synagogue in Prague
- The Old Jewish Cemetery which is one of the oldest surviving Jewish burial sites in the world
- The biggest synagogue in Prague – Klausen Synagogue
- The early 20th-century Neo-Romanesque style Ceremonial Hall
- The most recent and ornately decorated Spanish Synagogue (temporarily closed for renovation)
- The Robert Guttmann Gallery which houses the painting of famous local painter Robert Guttmann
- Additionally, a host of permanent exhibitions are held at the sites
Recommended for people interested in Jewish history and the holocaust.
- Location: Vezenska 141/1, Prague 110 00 Czech Republic
- Hours: Summers from 29th March to 23rd October – 9 AM to 6 PM, Winters from 25th October to 27th March – 9 AM to 4:30 PM
- Ticket: Combined tickets for all the sites are priced at 200 CZK (~ 9 USD, 680 INR) for an adult. Discounts available for senior citizens, children, the disabled, and for family tickets. The individual ticket for the Robert Guttmann Gallery is priced at 40 CZK (~ 1.8 USD, 136 INR). Audio guides are available on rent.
- Tours: Guided group tours in English are available on weekdays at 2 PM and on Sundays at 10 AM and 2 PM. Each tour lasts 2 hours and costs an additional 50 CZK (~ 2.25 USD, 170 INR) over the ticket price. Private tours are available at 2700 CZK (~ 121.5 USD, 9180 INR) for 3 people.
Old Town Bridge Tower
The Old Town Bridge Tower is a tower at the Old Town end of Charles Bridge. Built back in the 14th century, this tower is open for visitors and offers panoramic views of the city and the Vltava river. Ironically, it was also the location where the heads of 12 protestant leaders executed in 1621 were displayed.
- Location: Karluv Most, Prague 110 00 Czech Republic
- Hours: Open daily, April to September – 10 AM to 10 PM, March & October – 10 AM to 8 PM, November to February – 10 AM to 6 PM
- Ticket: 100 CZK (~ 4.5 USD, 340 INR)
Church of Our Lady before Tyn
The 14th century gothic Church of Our Lady before Tyn dominates Prague’s skyline with its iconic spires. Located in the Old Town square, it originally served as a place of worship for foreign merchants. Towards the end of the 17th century, the interior of the church was redone in Gothic style. The church houses a collection of renaissance, baroque, and gothic artworks. One of Prague’s must-see attractions.
- Location: Staromestske Namestí 604 Stare Mesto, Prague 110 00 Czech Republic
- Hours: Open for visitors from Tuesdays to Saturdays – 10 AM to Noon, 3 PM to 5 PM, Sundays – 10 AM to Noon. Sightseeing not allowed during masses.
- Ticket: Free to enter, donations accepted.
Petrin Hill and Tower
Petrin is a hillside park offering panoramic views over the city. It has its own garden and a lookout tower which was built as part of the Jubilee Exhibition in 1891 and was modelled on the Eiffel Tower. Petrin hill is connected to the city via the Funicular. It starts at the Újezd station which further connects to the city’s tram network.
- Location: Petrinske sady 633, Prague 118 00 Czech Republic
Tower: April to September – 10 AM to 10 PM, March & October – 10 AM to 8 PM, November to February – 10 AM to 6 PM
Funicular: April to October – 9 AM to 11:30 PM, November – March – 9 AM to 11:20 PM
- Ticket: Tower – 150 CZK (~ 6.75 USD, 510 INR), reduced and family tickets available. The Funicular is part of Prague Integrated Transport and uses the same ticketing system.
One of the most prestigious zoos in the world, the Prague Zoo deserves a mention in this list as it is the second most visited attraction in the Czech Republic after the Prague Castle. It is located on the banks of the River Vltava spread across a large area with rugged terrain. It is home to over 5000 animals belonging to 600 plus species. The most popular attractions are the Elephant Valley – home to a herd of Asian elephants, the Giant Salamander House – home to the endangered Chinese giant salamander, and the African House – a meadow filled with antelopes and giraffes. Apart from the usual attractions, the zoo hosts a range of entertainment programs and guided tours.
- Location: U Trojskeho Zamku 120/3, Prague 171 00 Czech Republic
- Hours: June to August – 9 AM to 9 PM, April, May, September, October – 9 AM to 6 PM, March – 9 AM to 5 PM, November to February – 9 AM to 4 PM
- Ticket: 250 CZK (~ 11.25 USD, 850 INR) for adult single entry, discounted tickets available for children and other categories. Tickets can now also be booked online. Check website for further details including options for guided tours and zoo programs.
Things to do
Apart from the sights listed above, Prague offers a plethora of things to do – from free walking tours to cruises on the Vltava river. Here’s my list of top things to do in Prague.
Walking tours are the best way to explore the narrow cobbled-stoned streets of Prague’s Old Town, taking in the sights and sound of the historic centre at a slow pace. While there are a lot of walking tours on offer, both free and paid, here is my list of the most highly rated ones in Prague. Note that while free tours do not have any upfront payment required, most guides expect to be tipped basis how you liked the tour at the end of it. However, it still works out to be way cheaper than most paid tours.
Prague Free Tour
They are one of the highest-rated tour companies in Prague. Their Prague Free Walking Tour covers the Old Town and the Jewish Quarters of Prague and takes place every day at 10 AM and 3 PM led by English speaking guides. Each tour runs for around 2 hours 45 minutes and covers all the highlights of the old town including the Charles Bridge. Tours are free to join and a tip is expected at the end of it.
Prague Free Tour also offers a paid Essential Prague Tour which essentially covers the same sights in a small group setting. The tour costs 400 CZK (~ 18 USD, 1360 INR) per person and runs for 2 and a half hours on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays, and Sundays starting at 9:30 AM. Check their website linked above for more information
Tour 4 Charity
Tour 4 Charity is a well-rated walking tour in Prague which donates all its profits to charities. While this is not a free tour, it is certainly worth the cause and the great reviews that it receives. The tour covers the Old Town, the New Town, and the Jewish Quarters, and is led by an English speaking guide. It runs daily, except Wednesdays, from 11 AM to 2 PM and is priced at 550 CZK (~ 24.75 USD, 1870 INR). Requires advance reservation for a spot. However, cash payments at the start are accepted. Website linked above.
Free Walking Tour Prague
Free Walking Tour Prague is another highly rated free walking tour company in Prague which offers multiple free walking tours – the most popular being the Old Town Tour and the Prague Castle Tour. They usually have two 2.5 hour-long Old Town Tours daily – starting at 10:30 AM and 2 PM. The tour covers the Old Town and the Jewish Quarters and is conducted in English. The Prague Castle Tour is also 2.5 hours long and takes place daily at 2:45 PM. It covers the Prague Castle Complex and the Charles Bridge. However, you would need to buy a separate Prague Castle ticket to enter the paid areas. Both tours are free to join, but tips are expected. All links provided above.
Cycling can be a great way of exploring the city at a leisurely pace and at the same time burning off those calories gained from that hearty meal of Czech Goulash. There are several operators offering both private and shared bike tours in and around the city. Some of them also rent out bicycles for visitors who like to explore the city on their own. My top recommendations are listed below.
Born In Prague
Born in Prague is a private tour company which offers, among other, private bike tours –Cycle Like a Local – in and around the city. They offer two half-day tours – Historic Centre and Beyond the Centre. Both tours cover areas going beyond what the usual walking tours offer and are a great way of exploring the city outside the tourist trail. Each tour lasts between 3.5 to 4.5 hours and is priced at 1950 CZK (~ 87.75 USD, 6630 INR) for a single traveller. The Real Prague by Bike tour is a combination of the above two tours and lasts between 6 to 7 hours. It is priced at 2480 CZK (~ 111.6 USD, 8432 INR) for a single traveller. Discounts available for children, larger groups, and visitors who have their own bikes. Website linked above.
Praha Bike offers a ton of different bike tours from multi-day countryside tours to e-bike tours. However, the one I can personally recommend is the Prague Classic City Bike Tour. This is a two and a half-hour long shared bike tour which starts at 11:30 AM on Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays, and Sundays, and at 2:30 PM on Wednesdays and Fridays. The morning tour is priced at 720 CZK (~ 32.4 USD, 2448 INR) and the afternoon one is priced at 690 CZK (~ 31.05 USD, 2346 INR). It covers the Old Town, New Town, Jewish Quarters, Lesser Town, and several other highlights. The tour is led by an English speaking guide and you receive wireless headsets to listen to his commentary while riding the bike.
They also offer bike tours covering the Prague Castle, parks, and beers gardens. Praha Bike has a wide range of bikes on rent which can be hired for different lengths of time.
360 Tours Prague
360 Tours Prague offers a 3-hour tour of the city including the Old Town, Jewish Quarters, Prague Castle, Lesser Town. It starts at 10:30 AM daily and is led by an English speaking guide. The tour is priced at 29 EUR (~ 34.26 USD, 2563 INR) per person. The tour page has been linked above. 360 Tours Prague also offers bike rentals starting from a minimum duration of half a day (starting at 1 PM). Check rental information here.
Czech food is a gastronomical potpourri with influences from many of its neighbouring countries. The food here is mostly meat-based. However, vegetarians need not fret as Czech cakes and dessert are equally appetizing and extremely popular. If you wish to experience the highlights of the local food scene and want to let an expert guide you in this journey, a food tour is a great way to do so in a short span of time. Czech food goes way beyond the ubiquitous Goulash and the below-recommended tours help you experience and sample them in less than half a day.
Taste of Prague
Taste of Prague is one of the highest-rated food tour companies on Trip Advisor. Their tour goes beyond food and tells the stories behind it, giving the guests an opportunity to understand the local culture and its cuisine while enjoying the wonders of Czech food. They primarily offer two foods tours in the city – the Prague Foodie Tour and the Traditional Czech Food Tour.
The Prague Foodie Tour is a small group tour which is 4 hours in length and includes a variety of traditional and modern Czech food as well as local beer and wine. They top it up with free travel consultancy before and after the tour, and a Prague Foodie Map. The tour starts anytime between 11 AM and 5 PM and is priced at 2700 CZK (~ 121.5 USD, 9180 INR) per person. The Traditional Czech Food Tour focuses only on the traditional food scene here in Prague. It includes between 10 to 12 tastings of traditional food plus local beer and wine. The tour starts anytime between 11 AM and 1 PM, runs for around 3.5 to 4 hours, and is priced at 2500 CZK (~ 112.5 USD, 8500 INR). Either one of these tours is highly recommended for visitors interested in exploring the local food scene.
Prague Urban Adventures
Urban Adventures is a well-known brand offering quality tours all over the world. Their food tour in Prague – Traditional Czech Food Tour is a top-rated one and includes 8 food and 5 drink tastings at several local establishments in the Old Town. The tour starts at 5 PM, is 4 hours long, and takes place every day of the week except on Sundays. It is priced at 95 EUR (~ 112.1 USD, 8394 INR) per person.
Prague Food Tour
Prague Food Tour is another top-rated food tour brand offering two food tours in the Prague region. The Delicious Food Tour focuses on traditional Czech cuisine and includes 10 different food tastings plus several alcohol tastings. It is a small group tour of around 4 to 5 hours in duration and starts anytime between 11:30 AM to 5 PM daily. This tour takes place in the Old Quarters and is priced at 2600 CZK (~ 117 USD, 8840 INR) per person. The Scrumptious Food Tour is more geared toward modern Czech food and includes pub food and Czech pastry. The tour includes 8 different food tastings plus several alcohol tastings. This too is a small group tour and last between 3 to 4 hours. It starts at 11:30 AM daily and is priced at 2200 CZK (~ 99 USD, 7480 INR) per person.
Boat tours are a great way to explore the city from an alternate viewpoint. Most boat tours take place in the Vltava River and some include lunch or dinner with the cruise. A few tours include wine and music experiences as you cruise along the river or one of Prague’s canals. Below are a few of my top recommendations.
Wine Boat offers small boat tours in an intimate setting cruising through the Vltava River and the Čertovka River Canal and includes tastings of 5 different local wines. Each tour lasts for about an hour and is priced at 40 EUR (~ 47.27 USD, 3537 INR) per person for the 10 guest cruise and at 60 EUR (~ 70.90 USD, 5305 INR) per person for the 6 guest cruise. They also offer private boat cruises. This is a great non-touristy way of experiencing Prague. Please check the website linked above for exact timings and date of availability.
Jazz Boat offers cruises on the Vltava River with Jazz performances every night. The artists change daily and the shows are very highly rated. Tickets for the cruises vary in prices for the kind of seat selected and usually range from 690 CZK (~ 31.05 USD, 2346 INR) to 790 CZK (~ 35.55 USD, 2686 INR). The 2nd Deck guests only get to hear the music over speakers since the live performance takes places on the 1st Deck. Food is extra and you can optionally select a 3-course menu option at the time of booking. However, payment for the dinner needs to be completed onboard the cruise. The boat departs daily at 8:30 PM and the cruise lasts for 2.5 hours.
Several other tour companies offer boat tours which have more guests onboard but are usually cheaper. Fun in Prague offers daytime, lunch, and dinner cruises ranging in price from 350 CZK (~ 15.75 USD, 1190 INR) for the daytime cruise up to 1000 CZK (~ 45 USD, 3400 INR) for the dinner cruise. Check their website for further information. Prague Venice offers 45 minute long cruises through the canals of Prague. The tickets are priced at 14 EUR (~ 16.54 USD, 1238 INR) per person and include drinks and ice cream plus entry to Charles Bridge Museum. Check website for the tour schedule.
Beer and Pub Tours
The home of Pilsner and the country which consumes the highest per capita beer in the world deserves a place in every Beer aficionado’s itinerary. And what better way to experience one of the top beer countries in the world than to share a couple of pints with a group of like-minded travellers in one of Prague’s historic pubs. While there are a host of beer and pub tours in Prague, below are the ones I can vouch for.
Prague Urban Adventures
Urban Adventures Beer & Tapas Tour is one of the best beer tours in Prague. The tour includes 4 traditional Czech beers, 3 Czech tapas, and a Prague Beer Hall map, and is led by an English speaking guide. It takes place everyday excepts Sundays at 5 PM and runs for 3.5 hours. The tour is priced at 69 EUR (~ 81.53 USD, 6101 INR) per person.
Prague Food Tour
Prague Food Tour offers the highly rated Beer Indulgence Tour. This is a premium small group tour which includes 7 local beers fresh from the tap and food pairing to go along with the beer which amounts to a complete lunch. This is one of the few tours led by expert Beer sommeliers. As such, quality is guaranteed. The tour starts at 1:30 PM daily and lasts for around 3.5 hours. It is priced at 1900 CZK (~ 85.5 USD, 6460 INR) per person.
Good Tours Prague
This is one of the low priced quality beer tour in Prague. The Good Tours Prague Beer Tour is a 3 hour tour which talks about the art of Czech beer making and its history. Also included are tastings of 3 traditional Czech beers. Group sizes can be considerably larger than the above mentioned premium tours. The tour takes place every day at 7:30 PM and is priced at 17 EUR (~ 20.09 USD, 1502 INR) making it an excellent value-for-money beer tour.
Sandeman’s New Europe
One of the pioneers of free tours in Europe, Sandeman is a popular brand for quality tours across major cities in the continent. Their Prague Beer Tasting Tour is well-reviewed and another value-for-money beer tour which includes tastings of 5 Czech beers in a 4-hour tour. Led by an English speaking guide, the tour visits 3 traditional bars and even includes bar snacks in the first one. It takes place every day at 6:30 PM and is priced at only 16 EUR (~ 18.80 USD, 1408 INR) per person.
Concerts and Theaters
Prague played host to the Mozart’s world-famous opera – Don Giovanni when it was performed for the first time at the Estates Theatre. If Western Classical Music and Opera interests you, then the city offers a multitude of options. Below are my recommendations for the best concerts and theatres in Prague.
Mozart Dinner is a highly rated dinner concert set in the historical neo-Baroque Boccaccio Ballroom. Performances include some of Mozart’s most famous operas including Don Giovanni. They are held mostly during the weekends and start at 6:30 PM. The entire program, including dinner and show, lasts for around 2.5 hours. Prices start at 1590 CZK (~ 71.55 USD, 5460 INR) per person for the concert only going up to 3300 CZK (~ 148.5 USD, 11220 INR) per person for a balcony seat including 3-course dinner and unlimited drinks. Rates for Christmas and New Year concerts can be significantly higher. Check the website linked above for schedule and booking options.
The Estates Theatre
The ornately decorated Estate Theatre is known as the place where Mozart’s Don Giovanni was performed for the first time. The opera continues to be performed at its original theatre to this day. Shows start at 7 PM and tickets are priced between 890 CZK (~ 40.05 USD, 3026 INR) to 1390 CZK (~ 62.55 USD, 4726 INR). Check the website linked above for further details. Tickets to shows at the Estate Theatre and other venues in Prague can be booked via TicketsOnline.cz.
Other popular venues in Prague
The State Opera and the National Theatre in Prague are known for their opera and ballet performances. Tickets for shows are comparatively cheaper to similar performances in other major European cities. The Obecní Dům is the municipal hall which houses the popular concert venue Smetana Hall. Apart from Operas and concerts, it also conducts guided tours of its historical premises. Tours are held in English and Czech. It takes place twice every day at 11 AM and 7 PM and is priced at 200 CZK (~ 9 USD, 680 INR) for an adult. Check the website linked above for further information.
Other things to see and do in Prague
Beyond the highlights listed above, Prague offers a ton of other sights and things to do, and you could literally spend weeks and still not see it all. However, if you do have the luxury of time, I would recommend the following additional things to do in Prague.
National Memorial to the Heroes of Heydrich Terror
The National Memorial to the Heroes of Heydrich Terror is located under the Orthodox Cathedral of St. Cyril and Methodius. This is a museum dedicated to Czech Paratroopers who hid in this church and died fighting over 700 Nazi soldiers during World War II. Open year-round from 9 AM to 5 PM, Tuesday to Sunday. It is recommended for visitors interested in War history.
Statue of Franz Kafka
The Statue of Franz Kafka is a work of modern art with 42 moving panels forming the face of Czech writer Franz Kafka. It is installed at the Quadrio shopping centre and is well worth a visit.
Museum of Senses
The Museum of Senses is a unique museum which aims to make visitors use and challenge all their senses. It uses various sensory aids and interactive activities to provide visitors with a one of a kind experience. It is open daily from 9 AM to 7 PM, and tickets are priced at 299 CZK (~ 13.46 USD, 1016 INR) for an adult.
If you are a lego fan, you just cannot afford to miss the Czech Repubrick. It is the Czech Republic’s biggest lego exhibition with over 30 giant models of famous Czech sights. They also have a live detective game, Grim´s Gang: The Stolen Crown. Tickets are priced at 247 CZK (~ 11.12 USD, 840 INR) for an adult when reserved online. It is open daily from 10 AM to 8 PM.
Speculum Alchemiae Museum
Speculum Alchemiae Museum is located in one of the oldest houses in Prague and is dedicated to the occult science of Alchemy. The museum originally housed secret underground alchemy labs set up by king Rudolf II in the 16th century. Visitors get to see how alchemists worked on the elixir of eternal youth, the philosopher’s stone and converting ordinary metals into gold. Open daily from 10 AM to 6 PM and visits include a guided tour of 30 minutes in length. Tickets are priced at 200 CZK (~ 9 USD, 680 INR) for an adult.
Where to eat and drink?
Prague is a foodie paradise and offers a variety of options to dine and drink – from traditional Czech restaurants and bars to international fine establishments. I have listed below a few of my favourite restaurants and bars in Prague. This list is by no means comprehensive but is a glimpse of what all the city has to offer.
Czech Slovak Restaurant
This is one of the top restaurants in Prague serving local Czech and Slovak fare. Located in the lesser town, the Czech Slovak Restaurant is a family-run one of a kind Czech-Slovak restaurant serving food and wine from around the region. The Goulash here is highly recommended.
- Location: Ujezd 20, Prague Czech Republic
- Hours: Daily from Noon to 11 PM, only the tasting menu is served on Tuesdays, there’s a pianist accompaniment on Saturdays
- Price: A three-course tasting menu is priced at 390 CZK (~ 17.55 USD, 1326 INR)
ROESEL – craft beer & food
Roesel is a great cheap-eat place tucked away in a corner in Mala Strana and servers authentic Czech craft beer and delicious local food. Prices are quite low for the quality on offer. A true hidden gem.
- Location: Mostecka 20, Prague 11800 Czech Republic
- Hours: Daily from 11 AM to 10 PM
- Price: A lunch of Goulash and a pint of craft beer can be had for under 200 CZK (~ 9 USD, 680 INR)
Pivovarský Klub is a restro-bar known for serving over 240 varieties of bottled beer and 6 types of beer on the tap. Also included in the menu is a wide range of meat including ostrich and kangaroo meat. Highly rated and cheap for a restaurant of such calibre.
- Location: Krizikova 17, Prague Czech Republic
- Hours: Daily from 11 AM to 10 PM
- Price: On offer are lunch specials on weekdays starting 125 CZK (~ 5.63 USD, 425 INR). Beers start at 30 CZK (~ 1.35 USD, 102 INR) for 2 Cl.
Pivovar Stare Mesto
Located in the heart of the Old Town, Pivovar Stare Mesto is a micro-brewery serving great in-house beer and local food. If you are adventurous enough, try their snails cooked in Czech style, or opt for their popular goulash and pork knuckles. Prices are reasonable and food is top-notch.
- Location: U Dobrenskych 268/3, Prague 110 00 Czech Republic
- Hours: Noon to 11 PM on weekdays, 1 PM to 11 PM on Saturdays and Sundays
- Price: Goulash at 225 CZK (~ 10.13 USD, 785 INR), beers on tap starting at 36 CZK (~ 1.62 USD, 122 INR)
Iluze is a quaint little bar in Prague with an Indian theme and serves amazing cocktails at surprisingly cheap rates. Worth trying are the ‘Hurricane‘ and ‘Flaming Lamborghini‘ cocktails.
- Location: Vladislavova 1389/8, Prague 11000 Czech Republic
- Hours: Mondays to Saturdays – 4 PM to 1 AM, Sundays – 5 PM to Midnight
- Price: Beers start at 29 CZK (~ 1.3 USD, 98.6 INR)
Last but by no means the least is my absolute favourite in Prague – Absintherie. This is one of a kind bar serving over 100 different kinds of Absinthe as well as having on display over 250 bottles from the world over. Also on the menu are absinthe beer, absinthe ice cream, absinthe cookies, and absinthe chocolates. This bohemian style bar also sells few of the rare bottles on display in the museum. A must visit place for all absinthe aficionados or anyone curious to try this green elixir.
- Location: Jilska 7 Stare Mesto, Prague 110 00 Czech Republic
- Hours: Daily from Noon to Midnight
- Price: 4 Cl servings of absinthe starts at 135 CZK (~ 6 USD, 459 INR)
Where to stay?
Prague is surprisingly cheap compared to many popular European destinations and can make for a great budget Euro-trip. This reflects in the quality and variety of accommodation available in Prague vis-a-vis the price. Below are my top recommendations at different price points.
The RoadHouse Prague
The RoadHouse Prague is one of the highest-rated backpacker hostel located in the Old Town, just 150 metres from the Charles Bridge. This social hostel is a great option for backpackers willing to meet other travellers and also be near to all the attractions in Prague. They organise family dinners on certain nights and offer a common kitchen for guests to cook their own meals.
- Phone: +420 220 514 225
- Website / HostelWorld.com
- Rate: A bed in an 8-bed mixed dorm is priced at 20.70 EUR (~ 24.51 USD, 1835 INR). Includes a personal locker, bedside power sockets, privacy curtains, and shared bathrooms.
Hostel One Home
Hostel One Home is another great social hostel located close to both the Old Town as well as Prague’s main railway station. The best things about this hostel are the super friendly staff and the free home-cooked meal every night. They have unlimited free tea/ coffee and a lounge with a TV and PlayStation. They also organise walking tours and parties. Best bang for bucks for a budget traveller.
- Phone: +420 222 212 720
- Website / HostelWorld.com
- Rate: A bed in a 4-bed mixed dorm is priced at 20 EUR (~ 23.68 USD, 1773 INR). Includes a personal locker, bedside power sockets, and shared bathrooms.
Hotel Pod Vezi
Pod Vezi is a 4-star boutique hotel located in the Lesser Town area of Prague near the Charles Bridge. This is one of the highest-rated hotels in the Mala Strana neighbourhood and the quality of service speaks for itself. Each room is equipped with ensuite bathroom, minibar, satellite TV, and tea/coffee maker. The rooms are brilliantly appointed and the rooftop terrace restaurant offers wonderful views over the historic area. Breakfast with a large spread of hot and cold food is included with all reservations.
- Phone: +420 228 883 151
- Website / Booking.com
- Rate: Starts at 98 EUR (~ 116.06 USD, 8687 INR) for a standard double room. However, discounts can often be availed by direct booking or booking via one of the partners.
Hotel Residence Agnes
Hotel Residence Agnes ranks as the number one hotel on Trip Advisor, and rightly so. This 4-star boutique hotel is located in the historic Old Town area of Prague. The building itself dates back to the 14th-century lending the hotel an unmissable romantic charm. Close to all the attractions in the centre of Prague, this hotel is known for its immaculate service and the brilliant breakfast buffet that comes included with every booking. Rooms are tastefully appointed and include air-conditioning, ensuite bathroom, minibar, and satellite TVs. My top recommendation in Prague.
- Phone: +420 228 880 817
- Website / Booking.com
- Rate: Starts at 89 EUR (~ 105.4 USD, 7889 INR) for a standard double room.
Below is a map with pins for all the sights discussed above in this article.
Prague is a city with endless possibilities and timeless charm. With so much to see and do, it is impossible to do justice to all the city has to offer in a single article. However, what I have attempted to do is to summarize in a single post all that is necessary to help you plan your best ever trip to Prague.
Do let me know if you have any comments, suggestions, or feedback in the comment section below. You can also reach out to me by filling in the form in the Contact page. Finally, if you have enjoyed reading this article, please consider sharing it on your favourite social media handle.
You are free and that is why you are lost
– Dearest Father. Stories and Other Writings (1954)